Quebec History Marianopolis College


Date Published:
July 2005

L’Encyclopédie de l’histoire du Québec / The Quebec History Encyclopedia

 

The Seven Years' War in Canada

 

The Seven Years' War is the name given to the final phase in the century-long struggle between France and Great Britain for dominance in North America and supremacy in the world. It is so named as war officially started in 1756, and the peace treaty that resolved it was signed in 1763. In reality, a state of war had existed in North America since 1754. The war was of significance as the two great powers fought on land and sea in nearly all parts of the world, invested huge amounts of money, material and men in this conflict, to the point that they both emerged exhausted from it, that the balance of power was tipped irretrievably in Britain's favour, that the course of Canadian history was profoundldy altered as the Canadiens were conquered and annexed to the British Empire. As such, this war is the central event in Quebec history. In recognition of this fact, in Canada it is simply called the War of the Conquest.

A variety of sources are reproduced on this page; the reader should pay particular attention to the source of each section. Links are also provided to more contemporary studies. Canadian sources and documents on the Seven Years' War are numerous. They sometimes display notable biases: about the role of Amerindians and Americans in the war; about the respective merits of the military commanders, especially of Montcalm and Wolfe; about the conflict between Vaudreuil and Montcalm; about the British policy toward Acadians; about the effects that the Conquest had on the Canadiens and the reasons for the defeat of the French. There is a clear chasm between French and English authors on several points.

 

This map shows the respective geographical positions of the  European

powers in North America between 1755 and 1760, as the Seven Years' War is taking place. As all historical maps, it interprets the situation. It puts Fort Duquesne squarely into British territory, something the French did not recognize at the time. It also extends the territory of Ruperts' Land into western Canada where French Forts, established by La Vérendrye and his sons, were in fact dominant. The reader should also keep in mind that the the Lake George area was intensely disputed at this time.

 

The Events:

I. A Great Imperial War.

II. Hostilities Before the War in North America.

III. The Deportation of the Acadians.

IV. 1756: the Declaration of War

V. 1757: the Year of William Henry

VI. William Pitt Takes Over in England.

VII. 1758: The Fall of Louisbourg.

VIII. 1759: The Decisive Year.

IX. The Siege of Quebec.

X. The Battle of the Plains of Abraham.

XI. 1760: The Fall of New France.

The Main Participants:

Abercrombie, James (d. 1775)

Abercrombie, James (1706-1781)

Amherst, Jeffrey, first Baron

Beaujeu, Daniel Hyacinthe Liénard de

Bigot, François

Bougainville, Louis Antoine, comte de

Bourlamaque, François-Charles de

Boscawen, Edward

Braddock, Edward

Burton, Ralph

Cadet, Joseph Michel

Carleton, Guy

Contrecoeur, Claude Pierre Pécaudy de

Cornwallis, Edward

Dieskau, Ludwig August, Baron

Dumas, Jean Daniel

Gage, Thomas

Johnson, William

Jumonville, Joseph Coulon de Villiers, Sieur de

Laglande, Charles Michel de

Lawrence, Charles

Lévis, François Gaston, Duc de

Malartic, Anne Joseph Hippolyte de Maurès, Comte de

Monckton, Robert

Montcalm, Louis- Joseph de Montcalm-Gozon, Marquis de

Murray, James

Pitt, William

Saunders, Charles

Shirley, William

Short, Richard

Townshend, George, Marquis

Vaudreuil, Pierre de Rigaud, Marquis de

Vergor, Louis DuPont du Chambon, Sieur de

Washington, George

Winslow, John

Wolfe, James

 

General Information:

Bearn Regiment

Crown Point

Louisbourg

Monongahela, battle of

Ticonderoga

 

The Judgment of Historians:

[Under construction]

 

 

 
© 2005 Claude Bélanger, Marianopolis College