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Canada, French Canadians and Franco-Americans in the Civil War Era (1861-1865)

Chapter I
Chapter II
Chapter III
Bibliographical Note


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Bibliographical Note

Very little has been written about the Franco-American participation in the Civil War. Indeed, the general lack of reliable sources on the subject has proved to be a major deterrent to many historians. Consequently, most accessible English-language sources tend to deal primarily with English Canadian issues and participation. However these can still provide a good starting point and a wealth of information. The most useful examination of Canadian-American relations during the Civil War era can be found in Robin W. Winks’ Canada and the United States: The Civil War Years (Montreal and Kingston, McGill-Queen’s University Press, 4th ed., 1998). Three general works will also be found particularly helpful: Marcus Lee Hansen and John Bartlet Brebner, The Mingling of the Canadian and American Peoples, Volume I: Historical (Toronto and New Haven, Ryerson Press and Yale University Press, 1940); Hugh Keenleyside, Canada and the United States: Some Aspects of Their Historical Relations (New York, Knopf, 2nd ed., 1952); and L. B. Shippee, Canadian-American Relations, 1849-1874 (Toronto and New Haven, Ryerson Press and Yale University Press, 1939). These studies are dated but have retained their usefulness. Good accounts of the growth of French America during the Civil War years can be found in the following general studies: Armand Chartier, The Franco-Americans of New England: A History (Manchester and Worcester, ACA Assurance and Institut français of Assumption College, 1999); Yves Roby, Les Franco-Américains de la Nouvelle-Angleterre, 1776-1930 (Sillery, Septentrion, 1990); and Robert Rumilly, Histoire des Franco-Américains (Montreal, self-published, 1958). On the American Civil War in general, the best work is James McPherson’s Pulitzer Prize winning Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (New York, Ballatine Books 1989). Robert E. Chenard provides a list of the Franco-Americans of Waterville, Maine, who fought in the Civil War at his web site (