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Bibliography on the Beothuks or Red Indians of Newfoundland



Claude Bélanger,

Department of history,

Marianopolis College .


AUSTIN , Shaun J., "Maritime Archaic and Recent Indian Evidence from Cape Cove Beach , Newfoundland ", Canadian Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 8, No 2, (1984): 115-128.


BARTELS, Denis, "Time Immemorial? A Research Note on Micmacs in Newfoundland ", Newfoundland Quarterly, Vol. 75, No 3 (1979): 6-9.


BARTELS, Dennis and Olaf Uwe JANZEN, "Micmac Migration to Western Nerwfoundland ", Canadian Journal of Native Studies, Vol. X, No 1 (1990): 71-94.

Beothuk History (Accessed on August 16, 2004)

The Beothuks from the Newfoundland Heritage site (Accessed on August 16, 2004).


BLAKE, Edith, "The Beothuks of Newfoundland ", Nineteenth Century, Vol. 24 (1888): 899-918.


BUDGEL, Richard, "The Beothuks and the Newfoundland Mind", Newfoundland Studies, Vol. VIII, No 1 (Spring 1992): 15-33.


DALTON , Mary, "Shadow Indians: The Beothuk Motif in Newfoundland Literature", Newfoundland Studies, Vol. VIII, No 2 (1992): 135-146.


DEVEREUX, E. J., "The Beothuck Indians of Newfoundland in Fact and Fiction", Dalhousie Review, 1970, 350-362.


Dictionary of Canadian Biography; especially the following entries:

David Buchan

George Cartwright

William Eppes Cormack

William Cull

Demasduwit (Mary March)

John Thomas Duckworth

James Patrick Howley

John Leigh

Hugh Palliser

John Peyton


Joe Sylvester

George Webber


ENGLISH, Leo F., "Some Aspects of Beothuk Culture", Newfoundland Quarterly, Dec. 1959-Summer 1960, pp. 11-13.


FRASER, Allan, "Beothuk of Newfoundland ", Canadian Geographical Journal, Vol. 65, No 5 (Nov. 1962): 156-159.


FRASER, Allan, "Shawnadithit Last of the Beothucks", Atlantic Advocate, Vol. 56, No 3 (Nov. 1965): 34-39.


GILBERT, William, ""Divers Places: The Beothuk Indians and John Guy's Voyage Into Trinity Bay in 1612", Newfoundland Studies, Vol. VI, No 2 (Fall 1990): 147-167.


HOLLY, Donald H., "Environment, History and Agency in Storage Adaptation: On the Beothuk in the 18th Century", Canadian Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 22 (1998): 19-30.

HOLLY, Donald H., "An Achaeological Survey of Fogo Island, Newfoundland", Northeast Anthropology, No 56 (Fall 1998): 69-74.

HOLLY, Donald H., "The Beothuks on the Eve of their Extinction", Arctic Anthropology, Vol. XXXVII, No 1 (2000), pp. 79-85.

HOLLY, Donald H., "A Historiography of an Ahistoricity: On the Beothuk Indians", History and Anthropology, Vol. 14, No 2 (June 2003):

HOLLY, Donald H., "Places of the Living, Places of the Dead: Situating Sacred Geography", Northeast Anthropology, No. 66 (Fall 2003): 57-76


HORWOOD, Harold Andrew, "The People Who Were Murdered for Fun", Macleans Magazine, October 10, 1959, pp. 27, 36, 38, 40, 42-43.


HOWLEY, James P., ed., The Beothucks or Red Indians . The Aboriginal Inhabitants of Newfoundland, Cambridge , Mass, 1915; reprinted Coles Canadiana Collection, Toronto 1974, 348p. There is a web edition available of this book (Accessed on August 16, 2004)


JANZEN, Olaf, "The European Presence in Newfoundland, 1500-1604", I. BULGIN, ed., Cabot and His World, St John's, Newfoundland Historical Society, 1999.

JANZEN, Olaf, " Beothuk and Mi'kmaq ", (Historiographical essay) Accessed on August 16, 2004.


JENNESS, Diamond, The Indians of Canada , various editions.


JENNESS, Diamond, "Notes on the Beothuk Indians of Newfoundland", Annual Report for 1927, National Museum of Canada Bulletin, No 56 (1929): 36-39.

JENNESS, Diamond, "The Vanished Red Indians of Newfoundland", Canadian Geographical Journal, Vol. 8, No 1 (1934): 26-32.


LOCKE, Don, "Three Beothuk Sites", Newfoundland Quarterly, Vol. 69, No 2 (1972): 29-31.

LOCKE, Don, Beothuk Artifacts, Grand Falls, Robinson-Blackmore, 1974.


MARSHALL, Ingeborg, "The Miniature Portrait of Mary March", Newfoundland Quarterly, Vol. 73, No 3 (1977): 4-7.


MARSHALL, Ingeborg, "An Unpublished Map Made by John Cartwright Between 1768 and 1773 Showing Beothuck Indian Settlements and Artifacts and Allowing a New Population Estimate", Ethnohistory, Vol. 24, No 3 (1977): 223-249.


MARSHALL, Ingeborg, "The Significance of Beothuk Carved Bone Pendants", Canadian Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 2 (1978): 139-154.


MARSHALL, Ingeborg, "Disease as a Factor in the Demise of the Beothuck Indians", Culture, Vol. 1, No 1 (1981): 71-77. Also in Change and Continuity , Carol WINTON, ed., Toronto, 1992, pp. 138-149.


MARSHALL, Ingeborg, "Methodists and Beothuk: Research in Methodist Archives", Newfoundland Studies, Vol. II, No 1 (Spring 1986): 19-28.


MARSHALL, Ingeborg, "Beothuk and Micmac: Re-Examining Relationships", Acadiensis, Vol. 17, No 2 (1988): 52-82.


MARSHALL, Ingeborg, A History and Ethnography of the Beothuk , Montreal and Kingston, McGill-Quuen's University Press, 1996, 640p. See the extensive review by Charles MARTIJN in Newfoundland Studies, Vol. XII, Nos 1-2 (Spring-Fall 1996): 105-131.


MARSHALL, Ingeborg, The Beothuk, St. John's, Newfoundland Historical Society, 2001, 87p.


MARTIJN, Charles A., "Les armoiries de Terre-Neuve et l'iconographie Béothuk", Recherches amériendiennes au Québec, Vol. II, No 4 (1981): 315-318.


MARTIJN, Charles A., "Voyages des Micmacs dans la vallée du Saint-Laurent, sur la Côte-Nord et à Terre-Neuve", dans Les Micmacs et la Mer , Recherches amérindiennes au Québec, 1986, pp. 197-223.


McGHEE, Robert, "Contact Between Native North Americans and the Medieval Norse: A Review of the Evidence", American Antiquity, Vol. 49, No 1 ((1984): 4-26.


McLEAN, Laurie, "Beothuk Iron - Evidence for European Trade?, Newfoundland Studies, Vol. 6, No 2 (1990): 168-176.


McLEAN, Laurie, "Back to the Beaches: New Data Pertaining to the Early Beothuk in Newfoundland", Northeast Anthropology, Vol. XLVII (Spring 1994): 71-86.


MITCHELL, John S., "All Gone Widdun ('asleep'/died): Was Shawnawdithit Right?", Newfoundland Quarterly, XCIII, No 1 (Fall 1999): 39-41.

Native languages of the Americas: the Beothuk (Accessed on August 17, 2004)

PASTORE, Ralph, Newfoundland Micmacs: A History of their Traditional Life, St. John's, Newfoundland Historical Society, Pamphlet No 5, 1978.


PASTORE, Ralph T., "Fishermen, Furriers, and Beothucks: The Economy of Extinction", in Man in the Northeast, No 33 (Spring, 1987): 47-62


PASTORE, Ralph, "The Collapse of the Beothuk World", Acadiensis, Vol. 19, No 1 (1989): 52-71.


PASTORE, Ralph T., Shanawdithit's People, St. John's, Atlantic Archaeology, 1992.


PASTORE, Ralph, T., "Archaeology, History and the Beothuks", Newfoundland Studies, Vol. X, No. 2 (Fall 1993): 260-278.


PATTERSON, George, "The Beothiks or Red Indians of Newfoundland", Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, Section 2, 1891, pp. 123-171.


POPE, P., "Scavengers and Caretakers: Beothuck/European Settlement Dynamics in Seventeenth Century Newfoundland", Newfoundland Studies, Vol. 9, No 2 (1993): 279-293.

PROWSE, D. W., A History of Newfoundland from the English, Colonial and Foreign Records, London, Macmillan, 1895. There is a new edition dated 1972.


RAYNAULD, Françoy, "Les pêcheurs et les colons anglais n'ont pas exterminé les Béothuks de Terre-Neuve", Recherches amérindiennes au Québec, Vol. XIV, No 1 (printemps 1984): 45-59.


RENOUF, Priscilla, "Prehistory of Newfoundland Hunter-Gatherers: Extinctions or Adaptations?", World Archaeology, Vol. XXX, No 3 (1999): 403-420.


REYNOLDS, B., "Beothuk", Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 15: Northeast , B. TRIGGER, ed., Washington, Smithsonian Institute, pp. 101-108.


ROWE, Frederick W., Extinction. The Beothucks of Newfoundland, Toronto, McGraw-Hill-Ryerson, 1977.


ROWE, Frederick W., "Extinction of the Beothuk of Newfoundland", Canadian Geographic Magazine, Vol. 7, No 2 (april-May 1987): 77-79.


ROWLEY-CONWY, "Settlement Patterns of the Beothuk Indians of Newfoundland: A View From Away", Canadian Journal of Archaeology, Vol. XIV, No 1 (1990): 13-32.


SCHWARTZ, Frederick A., "Paleo-Eskimo and Recent Indian Subsistence Patterns on the Island of Newfoundland", Northeast Anthropology, Vol. XLVII (Spring 1994): 55-70.


SMITH, Philip E. L., "Beothuks and Methodists", Acadiensis, XVI, No 1 (Autumn 1986): 118-135.

SMITH, Philip E. L., "In Winter Quarters", Newfoundland Studies, Vol. 3, No 1 (1987): 1-36


SPECK, Frank G., Beothuk and Micmac, Indian Notes and Monographs, New York, Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, 1922.

SUCH, P. Vanished People: The Archaic, Dorset and Beothuk People of Newfoundland, Toronto, NC Press, 1978.


THOMS, James R., "The First Newfoundlanders: The Beothucks", in Joseph R. SMALLWOOD, ed., The Book of Newfoundland, Vol. III, St. John's, Newfoundland Book Publishers, 1967, 602p., pp. 225-237.


TUCK, James A., Newfoundland and Labrador Prehistory, Ottawa, National Museum of Man, 1976.


TUCK, James A. and Ralph PASTORE, "A nice Place to Visit, but . Prehistoric Human Extinctions on the Island of Newfoundland", Canadian Journal of Archaeology, Vol. IX, No 1 (1985): 69-80.


UPTON, L. F. S., "The Extermination of the Beothucks of Newfoundland", Canadian Historical Review, Vol. LVIII, No 2 (June 1977): 133-153.


UPTON, L. F. S., "The Beothuks: Questions and Answers", Acadiensis, Vol. VII, No 2 (Spring 1978): 150-155.


WILTON, Carol, "The Extinction of the Beothuks", in Change and Continuity. A Reader on Pre-Confederation Canada, Toronto, McGraw-Hill-Ryerson, 1992, 394p., pp. 128-149.

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© 2004 Claude Bélanger, Marianopolis College