L’Encyclopédie de l’histoire du Québec / The Quebec History Encyclopedia
Missions Among Indians
[This text was originally published in 1907 by the Bureau of American Ethnology as part of its Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. It was later reproduced, in 1913, by the Geographic Board of Canada. The work done by the American Bureau was monumental, well informed and incorporated the most advanced scholarship available at the time. In many respects, the information is still useful today, although prudence should be exercised and the reader should consult some of the contemporary texts on the history and the anthropology of the North-West Indians suggested in the bibliographic introduction to this section. The articles were not completely devoid of the paternalism and the prejudices prevalent at the time. While some of the terminology used would not pass the test of our "politically correct" era, most terms have been left unchanged by the editor. If a change in the original text has been effected it will be found between brackets [.] The original work contained long bibliographies that have not been reproduced for this web edition. For the full citation, see the end of the text.]
Missions. From the very discovery of America the spiritual welfare of the native tribes was a subject of concern to the various colonizing nations, particularly Spain and France, with whom the Christianization and civilization of the Indians were made a regular part of the governmental scheme, and the missionary was frequently the pioneer explorer and diplomatic ambassador. In the English colonization, on the other hand, the work was usually left to the zeal of the individual philanthropist or of voluntary organizations.
First in chronological order, historical importance, number of establishments, and population, come the Catholic missions, conducted in the earlier period chiefly by Jesuits among the French and by Franciscans among the Spanish colonies. The earliest mission establishments within the present United States were those begun by the Spanish Franciscan Fathers, Padilla, Juan de la Cruz, and Descalona of the Coronado expedition, among the Quivira ( Wichita ), Pecos , and Tigua in 1542. Three years later the work was begun among the Texas tribes by Father Olmos. A century thereafter the first Protestant missions (Congregational) were founded by Mayhew and Eliot in Massachusetts . From that period the work was carried on both N. and S. until almost every denomination was represented, including Orthodox Russian in Alaska and the Mormons in Utah .
The New York mission began in 1642, among the Mohawk, with the ministration of the heroic Jesuit captive, Father Isaac Jogues, who met a cruel death at the hands of the same savages 4 years later. During a temporary peace between the French and the Iroquois in 1653 a regular post and mission church were built at Onondaga, the capital of the confederacy, by permission of the league. The Oneida , Cayuga, and Seneca invited and received missionaries. Much of their welcome was undoubtedly due to the presence in the Iroquois villages of large numbers of incorporated Christian captives from the destroyed Huron nation. The truce lasted but a short time, however, and before the summer of 1658 the missionaries had withdrawn and the war was again on. In 1666 peace was renewed and within a short time missions were again founded among all the tribes. In 1669 a few Christian Iroquois, sojourning at the Huron mission of Loretta, near Quebec city, withdrew and formed a new mission settlement near Montreal, at a place on the St. Lawrence known as [Laprairie], or under its mission name, St. François-Xavier-des-Prés, the precursor of the later St. François-Xavier-du-Sault and the modern Caughnawaga. The new town soon became the rallying point for all the Christian Iroquois, who removed to it in large numbers from all the tribes of the confederacy, particularly from the Mohawk towns. There also gathered the Huron and other Christian captives from among the Iroquois, as also many converts from all the various eastern Algonquian tribes in the French alliance. To this period belongs the noted Jesuit scholar, Etienne de Carheil, who, arriving in 1666, devoted the remaining 60 years of his life to work among the Cayuga, Hurons, and Ottawa , mastering all three languages, and leaving behind him a manuscript dictionary of Huron radices in Latin and French.
In 1668, also, a considerable body of Christian Cayuga and other Iroquois, together with some adopted Hurons, crossed lake Ontario from New York and settled on the N. shore in the neighbourhood of Quinte bay. At their request Sulpician priests were sent to minister to them, but, within a few years, the immigrant Indians had either returned to their original country or scattered among the other Canadian missions. In 1676 the Catholic Iroquois mission town of La Montagne was founded by the Sulpician fathers on the island of Montreal , with a well-organized industrial school in charge of the Congregation sisters. In consequence of these removals from the Iroquois country and the breaking out of a new war with the Five Tribes in 1687, the Jesuit missions in New York were brought to a close. In the seven years' war that followed Christian Iroquois of the missions and heathen Iroquois of the Five Nations fought against each other as allies of French or English, respectively. La Montagne was abandoned in 1704, and the mission transferred to a new site at the Sault-au-Recollet, N of Montreal. In 1720 this was again removed to the lake of Two Mountains (Oka or Canasadaga [Kanesatake]) on the Ottawa r., 20 m. above Montreal , where the Iroquois were joined by the Nipissing and Algonkin, of the former Sulpician mission town of Ile-aux-Tourtres . Among the noted workers identified with it, all of the scholarly Sulpician order, may be named Revs. Dépéret , Güen, Mathevet, 1746-81; De Terlaye, 1754-77; Guichart, Dufresne, and Jean Andre Cuoq, 1843-90. Several of these gave attention also to the Algonkin connected with the same mission, and to the Iroquois of St. Regis and other stations. All of them were fluent masters of the Iroquois language, and have left important contributions to philology, particularly Cuoq, whose Études philologiques and Iroquois dictionary remain our standard authorities.
All effort among the villages of the confederacy was finally abandoned, in consequence of the mutual hostility of France and England . In 1748 the Sulpician Father François Picquet founded the new mission settlement of Presentation on the St. Lawrence at Oswegatchie, the present Ogdensburg, N. Y., which within three years had a prosperous population of nearly 400 families, drawn chiefly from the Onondaga and Cayuga tribes. About 1756 the still existing mission town of St. Francis Regis (St. Regis), on the s. side of the St. Lawrence where the Canada - New York boundary intersects it, was founded under Jesuit auspices by Iroquois emigrants from Caughnawaga mission. The Oswegatchie settlement declined after the Revolution until its abandonment in 1807. Caughnawaga, St. Regis, and Lake of Two Mountains still exist as Catholic Iroquois mission towns, the two first named being the largest Indian settlements N. of Mexico.
CANADA EAST; NEWFOUNDLAND , ETC.
Canada , being originally a French possession, the mission work for a century and a half was almost entirely with the Catholics. Port Royal, now Annapolis , Nova Scotia , was founded in 1605, and the resident priest, Father Flèche, divided his attention between the French settlers and the neighbouring Micmac. In 1611 the Jesuits, Fathers Peter Biard and Enemond Massé , arrived from France, but finding work among the Micmac made difficult by the opposition of the governor, they went to the Abnaki, among whom they established a mission on Mt. Desert id., Maine, in 1613. The mission was destroyed in its very beginning by the English Captain Argall.
In 1619 work was resumed among the Micmac and the Malecite of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and lower Quebec under the Récollet Franciscans and continued for at least half a century. The most distinguished of these Récollets was Father Chrestien Le Clercq, who, while stationed at the Micmac mission of Gaspe , at the mouth of the St. Lawrence, from 1655 to about 1665, mastered the language and devised for it a system of hieroglyphic writing which is still in use in the tribe. Another of the same order is said to have been the first to compile a dictionary of a Canadian language, but the work is now lost. The eastern missions continued, under varying auspices and fortunes, until the taking of Louisburg , Nova Scotia , by the English in 1745, when all the missionaries in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick were either deported or compelled to seek other refuge. In their absence the Abbé Maillard, of Nova Scotia , ministered for some years to the Micmac and the Malecite, at first in secret and then openly after the peace of 1760. To him we owe a Micmac grammar and a treatise on the customs of the Indians. It was not until within the last century when international and sectarian jealousies had largely passed away, that the work was resumed, continuing without interruption to the present time.
Work was begun in 1615 by the Récollets among the roving Montagnais and Algonkin of the Saguenay, Ottawa , and lower St. Lawrence region. The pioneers were Fathers Dolbeau, Jamet, and Du Plessis, together with Father Le Caron in the Huron field. In 1636 Dolbeau had extended his ministrations to the outlying bands of the remote [Inuit] of Labrador . The principal missions were established at Tadoussac (Montagnais), the great trading resort at the mouth of the Saguenay; Gaspe (Montagnais and Micmac) and Three Rivers (Montagnais and Algonkin), all in Quebec province; Miscou, N. B., for the Micmac, and on Georgian bay for the Hurons. In 1625 the Récollets called the Jesuits to their aid, and a few years later, withdrew entirely, leaving the work to be continued by the latter order. In 1637 the Jesuit mission of St. Joseph was founded by Le Jeune at Sillery, near Quebec , and soon became the most important colony of the christianized Montagnais and Algonkin. In 1646, at the request of the Abnaki, Father Gabriel Druillettes was sent to that tribe. In consequence of the later New England wars, large numbers of the Abnaki and other more southerly tribes took refuge in the Canadian missions.
In 1641 Fathers Charles Raymbault and Isaac Jogues, among the Ottawa bands on the headwaters of the river of that name, accompanied a party to the far W. and discovered the great lake Superior, planting a cross and preaching in the camps about the present Sault Ste, Marie, Mich. In the next year a regular mission was established among the Nipissing, on the N. shore of the lake of the same name. Other missions followed, continuing until the dispersion of the Algonkin tribes by the Iroquois in 1650. Most of the fugitives fled westward, roving along the shores of lake Superior without missionary attention until visited by the Jesuit Allouez in 1667. Other names connected with this early Algonkin mission were those of Pijart, Garreau, and the pioneer explorer René Ménard. In 1657 the first Sulpicians arrived at Quebec from France , and soon afterward began work among the neighbouring tribes, but with principal attention to the Iroquois colonies on both shores of lake Ontario, at Quinte and Oswegatchie. To this period belongs the wonderful canoe voyage of discovery by the two Sulpicians, Galinée and Dollier de Casson, in 1669-70, from Montreal up through the Great lakes to Mackinaw, where they were welcomed by the Jesuits Dablon and Marquette, and then home, by way of French r., Nipissing, and the Ottawa. No less important was the discovery of an overland route from the St. Lawrence to Hudson bay in 1671-72 by the Sieur St. Simon, accompanied by the Jesuit Charles Albanel. Ascending the Saguenay from Tadoussac they crossed the divide, and after 10 months of toilsome travel finally reached the bay near the mouth of Rupert r., where Albanel, the first missionary to penetrate this remote region, spent some time preaching and baptizing among the wandering Maskegon along the shore. In 1720 a number of the christianized Iroquois, with fragments of the Algonkin bands, after years of shifting about, were gathered into a new mission settlement at Oka, or lake of Two Mountains (Lac des Deux Montagnes), also known under its Iroquois name of Canasadaga [Kanesatake], on the N. bank of the Ottawa, above the island of Montreal . It still exists as one of the principal Indian settlements.
Among the earlier missionaries in this region who have made important contributions to Algonquian philology may be noted: Father Louis André , Jesuit, who spent more than 40 years with the Montagnais and the Algonkin, from 1669, leaving behind him a manuscript dictionary of the Algonkin, besides a great body of other material; Father Antonio Silvy, Jesuit, of the same period, author of a manuscript Montagnais dictionary; Father Pierre Laure, Jesuit, with the Montagnais, 1720-38, author of a manuscript Montagnais grammar and dictionary, and other works; Father Jean Mathevet, Sulpician, at Oka, 1746 to 1781, the author of an Abnaki dictionary; Father Vincent Guichart, ministering to Algonkin and Iroquois at Oka from 1754 until his death in 1793, master of both languages and author of a manuscript Algonkin grammar; the Abbé Thavenet, Sulpician, at Oka, from about 1793 to 1815, author of an Algonkin grammar and dictionary and other miscellany, still in manuscript; Father J. B. La Brosse, Jesuit, with the Montagnals and Malecite, 1754 to his death in 1782, author of a number of religious and teaching works in the Montagnais language. Among the most distinguished labourers within the last century in the Montagnais, Algonkin, and Maskegon territories, stretching from the St. Lawrence to Hudson bay, may be named Fathers Durocher (1829-73), Garin (1845-57), Laverlochère (1845-51), Lebret (1861-69), Guéguen (1864-88+), and Prévost (1873-88+), all of the Oblate order, and each the author of some important contribution to American philology. Rev. Charles Guay has given attention to the language among the Micmac of New Brunswick. In recent years the most prominent name is that of Father J. A. Cuoq, Sulpician, already noted, missionary at Oka for more than half a century, beginning in 1847, master of the Mohawk and Algonkin languages, and author of a dictionary of each, besides numerous other important linguistic works.
According to the Indian Affairs Dept. Report for 1911 the Catholic Indians of the five eastern provinces numbered 19,652, including all those of Prince Edward Id., Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick , five-sixth of those. of Quebec, and one-third of the Christian Indians of Ontario. Every settlement of importance had a church, school, or visiting priest, the standard for industry being fair, for temperance good, and for honesty and general morality exceptionally high.
The noted Huron missions hold a place by themselves. The beginning was made by the Récollet, Joseph Le Caron, who accompanied Champlain on his visit to the Huron country in 1615. The tribe at that time occupied the shores of Georgian bay, Ontario, and with other incorporated bands may have numbered 10,000 souls or more (some estimates are much higher), in from 15 to 30 towns or villages, several of which were strongly palisaded. They were probably then of strength equal to that of their hereditary enemies and final destroyers, the Iroquois of New York. In more or less close alliance with the Hurons were the cognate Tionontati and Neutrals, farther to the S. and S. W., in the peninsula between lakes Erie and Huron. Le Caron spent the winter with the Hurons and Tionontati, established the mission of St. Gabriel, made a brief dictionary of the language, and returned to the French settlements in the spring. The work was continued for some years by other Récollets, Gabriel Sagard, author of a Huron dictionary and a history of the Récollet missions, and Nicolas Viel, who was drowned in the Sault-au-Récollet, Laval co., Que. in 1625; whether accidentally or maliciously is uncertain. In 1625 the Jesuits arrived in Canada to assist the Récollets, and the next year the heroic Jean de Bréboeuf [Brébeuf] and another Jesuit, with Father Joseph Dallion, Récollet reached St. Gabriel. The Neutrals also were now visited, but without successful result. The work was brought to a temporary close by the Fnglish occupancy of Canada in 1629.
In 1634, after the restoration of French control, the work was resumed, this time by the Jesuits alone, with Bréboeuf [sic] as superior, assisted then or later by Fathers Daniel, Garnier, Jogues, and others of less note. The mission church of Immaculate Conception was built in 1637 at Ossossani, one of the principal towns; St. Joseph was established at Teananstayae, the capital, in the next year; the principal war chief of the tribe was baptized, and Christianity began to take root, in spite of the suspicions engendered by two wasting epidemic visitations, for which the missionaries were held responsible and solemnly condemned to death, until the current of opposition was turned by Bréboeuf's [sic] courageous bearing. In 1639 there were 4 established missions with 13 priests working in the Huron country and visiting in the neighbouring tribes. St. Mary, on Wye r., had been made the general headquarters. A visitation of smallpox again spread terror through the tribe and for a time rendered the position of the missionaries unsafe. In consequence of these successive epidemics within a few years, several towns bad been depopulated and the tribe so much weakened as to leave it an easy prey for the invading Iroquois, whose inroads now became more constant and serious than before.
In 1641 the Iroquois invaded the Huron country in force, killed many, and carried off many others to captivity. In 1648, after a temporary truce, they resumed the war of extermination, with perhaps 2,000 warriors well armed with guns obtained from the Dutch, while the Hurons had only bows. On July 4, Teananstayae, or St. Joseph , on the site of the present Barrie , was attacked and destroyed, the missionary, Father Anthony Daniel, killed with several hundred of his flock, and about 700 others were carried off as captives. The whole country was ravaged throughout the fall and winter, and one town after another destroyed or abandoned. On Mar. 16, 1649, a thousand warriors attacked St. Ignatius town and massacred practically the whole population, after which they proceeded at once to the neighbouring town of St. Louis , where the burning and massacre were repeated, and two missionaries, Bréboeuf [sic] and Father Gabriel Lalemant killed after hours of the most horrible tortures. An attack on St. Mary where Father Ragueneau was, stationed, was repulsed, after which the Iroquois retired.
This was the death-blow to the Huron nation. Fifteen towns were abandoned and the people scattered in every direction. Two whole town populations submitted to the conquerors and removed in a body to the Seneca country. Others fled to the Tionontati, who were now in turn invaded by the Iroquois and compelled, by burning and massacre, with the killing of Fathers Garnier and Chabanel, to abandon their country and flee with the rest. Others took refuge on the islands of lake Huron. Some joined the Neutrals, who soon after met the same fate.
For the next 50 years the history of the confederated Huron and Tionontati remnants is a mere record of flight from pursuing enemies - the Iroquois in the E. and the Sioux in the W. A considerable body which sought the protection of the French, after several removals was finally settled by Father M. J. Chaumonot in 1693 at Jeune Lorette, near Quebec, where their descendants still reside . To Chaumonot we owe a standard grammar and dictionary of the Huron language, only the first of which is yet published. In the meantime, in 1656-57, two-thirds of this band had bodily removed to the Iroquois country to escape destruction.
The other fugitives, composed largely or principally of Tiononotati, fled successively to Manitoulin id. in lake Huron; Mackinaw; the Noquet ids. in Green bay, Wis.; westward to the Mississippi; back to Green bay, where they were visited by the Jesuit Menard in 1660; to Chegoimegon, near the present Bayfield, Wis., on the S. shore of lake Superior, where the Jesuit Allouez ministered to them for several years; back, in 1670, to Mackinaw, whence another party joined the Iroquois and finally down to Detroit, Mich., when that post was founded in 1702. In 1751, a part of these, under Father de la Richard, settled at Sandusky , Ohio . From this period the Wyandot, as they now began to be called, took their place as the leading tribe of the Ohio region and the privileged lighters of the confederate council fire. Their last Jesuit missionary, Father Peter Potier, died in 1781, after which they were served by occasional visiting priests and later by the Presbyterians and the Methodists, until about the period of their removal to Kansas in 1842.
The work of the Episcopalians (Anglican Church) among the Iroquois of New York, began about 1700 and continued in Canada after the removal of a large part of the confederacy from the United States . In 1783 Rev. Thomas Wood of Nova Scotia , having become acquainted with the Abbé Maillard and obtained the use of his Micmac manuscript, applied himself to the study of the language, dividing his ministrations thenceforth between the Indians and the whites until his death in 1778. He preached in the native tongue, in which he produced several religious translations. This seems to have been the only work recorded for this denomination in this part of the Dominion, and in the Rep. of the Indian Affairs Dept. for 1911 no Indians are enumerated under this heading in the provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, or Prince Edward Id. In Quebec province the same report gives this denomination 1,015 Indians, including 40 Abnaki at St. Francis and 49 Montagnais at Lake St. John, 344 at Rupert House, 200 at Waswanipi lake, 175 at lake Mistassini and 151 at Eastmain .
In Ontario province, besides the work already noted among the Iroquois, active and successful missionary effort has been carried on by the Episcopalians among the various Chippewa bands and others since about 1830. One of the principal stations is that at Garden River , below Sault Ste. Marie, begun in 1835 by Rev. Mr. McMurray, who was succeeded a few years later by Rev. F. A. O'Meara, afterward stationed on Mantoulin id., and later at Port Hope on lake Ontario . Besides building up a flourishing school, Mr. O'Meara found time to translate into the native language the Book of Common Prayer , considerable portions of both the Old and New Testament, and a volume of hymns, the last in co-operation with the Rev. Peter Jacobs. He died about 1870. Of the more recent period the most noted worker is Rev. E. F. Wilson, who began his labours under the auspices of the Church Mission Society in 1868. To his efforts the Indians owe the Shingwauk and Wawanosh homes at Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario , where some 60 or 80 children are cared for, educated and taught the rudiments of trades and simple industries. A school journal, set up and printed by the Indian boys, has also been conducted at intervals, under various titles, for nearly 30 years. Mr. Wilson is the author of a number of Indian writings, of which the most important is probably a Manual of the Ojibway Language, for the use of mission workers.
In 1835 a mission was established also on Thames r., among the Munsee, a remnant of those Delaware refugees from the United States who for so many years of the colonial period had been the object of Moravian care. One of the pioneer workers, Rev. Mr. Flood, translated the church liturgy into the language of the tribe.
Of 21,291 Christian Indians officially reported in 1911 in Ontario province, 7,652, or more than one-third, are credited to the Epis copal or Anglican church, including - Iroquois in various bands, 2,881; "Chippewas, Munsees and Oneidas of the Thames", 487; "Ojibbewas of lake Superior," 554; "Chippewas and Saulteaux of Treaty No. 3" (Manitoba border), 879; "Munsees of the Thames," (originally Moravian converts from the United States), 50; "Ojibbewas and Ottawas of Manitoulin and Cockburn ids.," 178; Chippewa and Potawatomi of Walpole id., 390; Garden River res., 194, and one or two smaller groups.
The work among the [Inuit] of the Labrador coast - officially a part of Newfoundland - conducted by the Moravians. In 1752 a reconnoitring [sic] missionary party landed near the present Hopedale, but was attacked by the natives, who killed Brother J. C. Ehrhardt and 5 sailors, whereupon the survivors returned home and the attempt for a long time was abandoned. One or two other exploring trips were made for the same purpose, and in 1769 permission to establish missions on the Labrador coast was formally asked by the Moravians and granted by the British government. In 1771 the first mission was begun at Nain, apparently by Brother Jens Haven. It is now the chief settlement on the Labrador coast. In 1776 Okkak was established by Brother Paul Layritz, followed by Hopedale in 1782, and Hebron in 1830. To these have more recently been added Zoar and Ramah. The efforts of the missionaries have been most successful, the wandering [Inuit] having been gathered into permanent settlements, in each of which are a church, store, mission residence, and workshops, with dwelling houses on the model of the native iglu. Besides receiving religious instruction, the natives are taught the simple mechanical arts, but to guard against their innate improvidence, the missionaries have found it necessary to introduce the communal system, by taking charge of all food supplies to distribute at their own discretion. All the missions are still in flourishing operation, having now under their influence about 1,200 of the estimated 1,500 [Inuit] along a coast of about 500 m. in length. The total number of mission workers is about 30 (see Hind, Labrador Peninsula ).
To these Moravian workers we owe a voluminous body of [Inuit] literature - grammars, dictionaries, scriptural translations, hymns, and miscellaneous publications. Among the prominent names are those of Bourquin, about 1880, author of a grammar and a Bible history; Burghardt, gospel translations, 1813; Erdmann, missionary from 1834 to 1872, a dictionary and other works; Freitag, a manuscript grammar, 1839; and Kohlmeister, St. John's Gospel, 1810. The majority of these Moravian publications were issued anonymously.
In 1820 the Wesleyan Methodists , through Rev . Alvin Tory, began work among the immigrant Iroquois of the Ontario reservations, which was carried on with notable success for a long term of years by Rev. William Case. In 1823 Mr. Case extended his labours to the Missisauga, a band of the Chippewa, N. of lake Ontario. The most important immediate result was the conversion of Peter Jones (Kahkewaquonaby), a [Métis], who was afterward ordained, and became the principal missionary among his people and the more remote Chippewa bands until his death in 1856. He is known as the author of a collection of hymns in his native language and also a small History of the Ojebway Indians. Another noted missionary convert of this period was Shawundais, or John Sunday. Another native worker of a somewhat later period was Rev. Henry Steinhauer, Chippewa, afterward known as a missionary to the Cree. Still another pioneer labourer in the same region was Rev. James Evans, afterward also missionary to the Cree and inventor of a Cree syllabary. Contemporary with the transfer of Evans and Steinhaver to the Cree in 1840, Rev. George Barnley was sent to establish a mission at Moose Factory, James bay , which, however, was soon after abandoned. Beginning in 1851, Rev. G. M. McDougall established Methodist mission stations among the Chippewa along the N. shore of lake Superior , at Garden River and elsewhere, but afterward transferred his operations also to Cree territory. In 1861-62 Rev. Thomas Hurlburt, already a veteran worker, and considered the most competent Chippewa linguist in the Methodist mission, conducted a monthly journal, Petaubun , in the language, at the Sarnia station.
According to the official Canadian Indian Report for 1911, the Methodist Indians of E. Canada numbered 4,513, in Ontario , and 536 in Quebec , a total of 5,039, none being reported for the other eastern provinces. Those in Ontario included half the "Chippewas of the Thames," nearly all of the "Mississaguas," and "Iroquois and Algonquins of Watha," 310 of "Moravians of the Thames ," and one-sixth of the "Six Nations" on Grand r. Those in Quebec province are chiefly Iroquois of the Oka , St. Regis, and Caughnawaga settlements.
Of other denominations, the same official report enumerates 1,078 Baptists in Ontario, almost entirely among the Six Nations on Grand r., with 18 Congregationalists, 16 Presbyterians, and a total of 406 of all other denominations not previously noted. In the other eastern provinces - Quebec , New Brunswick , Nova Scotia , and Prince Edward Id. - there is no representation with the exception of 17 in Quebec accredited to "Other Christian Beliefs."
The work of Rev. Silas T. Rand among the Micmac of Nova Scotia stands in a class by itself. Educated in a Baptist seminary, he became a minister, but afterward left that denomination to become an independent worker. His attention having been drawn to the neglected condition of the Indians, he began the study of the Micmac language, and in 1849 succeeded in organising a missionary society for their special instruction. Under its auspices until its dissolution in 1865, and from that time until his death in 1889, he gave his whole effort to the teaching of the Micmac and to the study of their language and traditions. He is the author of a Micmac dictionary and of a collection of tribal myths as well as of numerous minor works, religious and miscellaneous.
CANADA , CENTRAL ( Manitoba , Saskatchewan , Alberta ).
In the Great Plains region stretching from Hudson bay southwestward to the Rocky mts., the former battle ground of Cree, Assiniboin, and Blackfeet, the Catholics were again the pioneers, antedating all others by a full century. According to Bryce, "the first heralds of the cross" within this area were the French Jesuits accompanying Vérendrye , who in the years 1731-1742 explored the whole territory from Mackinaw to the upper Missouri and the Saskatchewan, establishing trading posts and making alliances with the Indian tribes for the French government. Among these missionaries the principal were Fathers Nicolas Gonor, who had laboured among the Sioux as early as 1727; Charles Messager, and Jean Aulneau , killed by the same tribe in 1736. No attempt was made during this period to form permanent mission settlements.
Then follows a long hiatus until after the establishment of the Red River colony in the early part of the 19th century by Lord Selkirk , who in 1816 brought out from eastern Canada Fathers Sévère Dumoulin and Joseph Provencher , to minister both to the colonists and to the Indian and mixed-blood population of the Winnipeg country. In 1822 Father Provencher was made bishop, with jurisdiction over all of Ruperts Land and the Northwestern Territories, and carried on the work of systematic mission organization throughout the whole vast region until his death in 1853, when the noted Oblate missionary, Father Alexandre Taché , who had come out in 1845, succeeded to the dignity, in which he continued for many years.
The Catholic work in this central region has been carried on chiefly by the Oblates, assisted by the Grey nuns. The first permanent mission was St. Boniface, established opposite the site of the present Winnipeg by Provencher and Dumoulin in 1816. St. Paul mission on the Assiniboine later became the headquarters of the noted Father George Belcourt, who gave most of his attention to the Saulteux (Chippewa of Saskatchewan region), and who, from 1831 to 1849, covered in his work a territory stretching over a thousand miles from E. to W. For his services in preventing a serious uprising in 1833 he was pensioned both by the Government and by the Hudson 's Bay Co. He is the author of a grammatic treatise and of a manuscript dictionary of the Saulteur (Chippewa) language, as well as of some minor Indian writings.
In the Cree field the most distinguished names are those of Fathers Albert Lacombe (1848-90), Alexandre Taché (1845-90), Jean B. Thibault (ca. 1855-70), Valentin Végreville (1852-90), and Emile Petitot (1862-82), all of the Oblate Order, and each, bides his religious work, the author of important contributions to philology. To Father Lacombe, who founded two missions among the Cree of the upper North Saskatchewan and spent also much time with the Blackfeet, we owe, besides several religious and text-book translations, a manuscript Blackfoot dictionary and a monumental grammar and dictionary of the Cree language. Father Végreville laboured among Cree, Assiniboin, and the remote northern Chipewyan, founded five missions, and composed a manuscript grammar, dictionary, and monograph of the Cree language. Father Petitot's earlier work among the Cree has been overshadowed by his later great work among the remote Athapascans and [Inuit], which will be noted hereafter. Among the Blackfect the most prominent name is that of Bishop Emile Legal , Oblate (1881-90), author of several linguistic and ethnologic studies of the tribe, all in manuscript.
Episcopalian work in the central region may properly be said to have begun with the arrival of Rev. John West , who was sent out by the Church Missionary Society of England in 1820 as Chaplain to the Hudson's Bay Co's establishment of Fort Garry (Winnipeg), on Red r. In the three years of his ministrations, besides giving attention to the white residents, he made missionary journeys among the Cree and others for a distance of 500 m. to the W. He was followed by Rev. David Jones in 1823, by Rev. Wm. Cochrane in 1825, Rev. A. Cowley in 1841, and Rev. R. James in 1846, by whom, together, the tribes farther to the N. were visited and brought within mission influence. In 1840 a Cree mission at The Pas, on the lower Saskatchewan, was organized by Henry Budd , a native convert, and in 1846 other stations were established among the same tribe at Lac la Ronge and Lac Ile-à-la-Crosse, by James Settee and James Beardy respectively, also native converts. In 1838 a large bequest for Indian missions within Ruperts Land, as the territory was then known, had been made by Mr. James Leith , an officer of the Hudson's Bay Co., and generously increased soon after by the company itself. With the assistance and the active effort of four missionary societies of the church, the work grew so that in 1849 the territory was erected into a bishopric, and on the transfer of jurisdiction from the Hudson's Bay Co., to the Canadian government in 1869 there were 15 Episcopal missionaries labouring at the various stations in the regions stretching from Hudson bay to the upper Saskatchewan, the most important being those at York Factory (Manitoba), Cumberland, and Carlton (Saskatchewan).
Among the most noted of those in the Cree country may be mentioned in chronological order, Rev. Archdeacon James Hunter and his wife (1844-55), joint or separate authors of a number of translations, including the Book of Common Prayer , hymns, gospel extracts, etc., and a valuable treatise on the Cree language; Bishop John Horden (1851-90), of Moose Factory; York Factory, and Ft. Churchill stations, self-taught printer and binder, master of the language, and author of a number of gospels, prayer, and hymn translations; Bishop William Bompas (1865-90), best known for his work among the more northern Athapascan tribes; Rev. W. W. Kirkby (1852-79), author of a Cree Manual of Prayer and Praise , but also best known for his Athapascan work: Rev. John Mackay, author of several religious translations and of a manuscript grammar; and Rev. E. A. W. Watkins, author of a standard dictionary. Among the Blackfeet, Rev. J. W. Timm, who began his work in 1883, is a recognized authority on the language, of which he has published a grammar and dictionary and a gospel translation.
Methodist (Wesleyan) effort in the Cree and adjacent territories began in 1840. In that year Rev. James Evans and his Indian assistant, Rev. Henry Steinhauer , both already noted in connection with previous work in Ontario, were selected for the western mission, and set out together for Norway House, a Hudson's Bay Co's post at the N. end of take Winnipeg. Evans went on without stop to his destination, but Steinhauer halted at Rainy lake to act as interpreter to Rev. William Mason, who had just reached that spot, having been sent out under the same auspices, the Wesleyan Missionary Society of England, by arrangement with the Canadian body. The joint control continued until 1855, when the Canadian Methodists assumed full charge. Mr. Evans had been appointed superintendent of Methodist work for the whole region, and after establishing Rossville mission, near Norway House, as his central station, spent the next six years until his health failed, in traversing the long distances, founding several missions, mastering the Cree language, and devising for it a syllabary, which has ever since been in successful use for all literary purpose in the tribe. His first printing in the syllabary was done upon a press of his own making, With types cast from the sheet-lead lining of tea boxes and cut into final shape with a jackknife. In this primitive fashion he printed many copies of the syllabary for distribution among the wandering bands, besides hymn collections and scripture translations. "By means of this syllabary a clever Indian can memorize in an hour or two all the characters, and in two or three days read the Bible or any other book in his own language" (MacLean). In later years, the credit for this invention was unsuccessfully claimed by some for Rev. William Mason. Roseville for years continued to be the principal and most prosperous of all the Methodist missions in the central region.
Rev. William Mason remained at Rainy lake until that station was temporarily discontinued in 1844; he was then sent to Rossville (Norway House), where he was stationed until 1854, when the mission was abandoned by the Wesleyans. He then attached himself to the Episcopal church, with which he had formerly been connected, and was ordained in the same year, labouring thereafter at York Factory on Hudson bay until his final return to England in 1870, with the exception of 4 years spent in that country supervising the publication of his great Bible translation in the Cree language, printed in 1861. This, with several other Scripture and hymn translations, excepting a Gospel of St. John; was issued under the auspices of the Episcopal Church Missionary Society. In his earlier linguistic (Methodist) work he was aided by Rev. Mr. Steinhauer and John Sinclair, a [Métis], but in all his later work, especially in the Bible translation, he had the constant assistance of his wife, the educated half-breed daughter of a Hudson 's Bay Co. officer. Rev. Mr. Steinhauer, after some years with Mr. Mason, joined Mr. Evans at Norway House as teacher and interpreter. He afterwards filled stations at Oxford House (Jackson bay), York Factory, Lac la Biche, Whitefish Lake, Victoria, and other remote points, for a term of more than 40 years, making a record as "one of the most devoted and successful of our native Indian missionaries" (Young). Among later Methodist workers with the Cree may be mentioned Rev. John McDougall , one of the founders of Victoria station, Alberta, in 1862, and Rev. Ervin Glass, about 1880, author of several primary instruction books and charts in the syllabary.
At the same time (1840) that Evans and Mason were sent to the Cree, Rev. Robert T. Rundle was sent, by the same authority, to make acquaintance with the more remote Blackfoot and Assiniboin ("Stonies") of the upper Saskatchewan region. Visiting stations were selected where frequent services were conducted by Rundle, by Rev. Thomas Woolsey, who came out in 1855, and by others, but no regular mission was established until begun by Rev. George M. McDougall at Edmonton , Alberta , in 1871. In 1873 he founded another mission on Bow r., Alberta , among the Stonies (western Assiniboin), and continued to divide attention between the two tribes until his accidental death 2 years later. Another station was established later at Macleod, in the same territory. The most distinguished worker of this denomination among the Blackfoot is Rev. John MacLean (1880-89), author of a manuscript grammar and a dictionary of the language, of several minor linguistic papers, The Indians: Their Manners and Customs (1889), and Canadian Savage Folk (1896).
Presbyterian mission work was inaugurated in 1865 by the Rev. James Nisbet , among the Cree, at Prince Albert mission on the Saskatchewan . No data are at hand as to the work of the denomination in this region, but it is credited in the official report with nearly a thousand Indian communicants, chiefly among the Sioux and the Assiniboin, many of the latter being immigrants from the United States.
According to the Report of Indian Affairs for 1911 , the Indians of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and the Northwest Territories, classified under treaties 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 7, 8 and 10, designated as Chippewa, Cree, Saulteaux, Sioux, Assiniboin, Blackfoot, Bloods, Piegan, Sarsi, Stonies, and Chipewyan, are credited as follows: Catholic, 8,738; Anglican (Episcopal), 6,951; Methodist, 4,290; Presbyterian, 1,174; Baptist, 75; all other denominations, 149; pagan, 4,050.
BRITISH COLUMBIA (including Vancouver id. and Metlakatla).
The earliest missionary entrance into British Columbia was made by the Catholics in 1839. In 1838 the secular priests Demers and Blanchet (afterward archbishop) had arrived at Fort Vancouver , Washington , to minister to the employees of the Hudson 's Bay Co. In the next year an Indian mission was organized at Cowlitz, with visiting stations along the shores of Puget sd., and Father Demers made a tour of the upper Columbia as far as the Okinagan in British Columbia , preaching, baptizing, and giving instruction by means of a pictograph device of Father Blanchet's invention, known as the "Catholic ladder." Copies of this "ladder" were carried by visiting Indians to the more remote tribes and prepared the way for later effort. A second journey over the same route was made by Father Demers in the next year, and in 1841 he preached for the first time to a great gathering of the tribes on lower Fraser r. In the following year, 1842, by arrangement with the local Hudson 's Bay Co. officers, he accompanied the annual supply caravan on its return from Ft. Vancouver , on the Columbia , to the remote northern poets. On this trip, ascending the Columbia and passing over to the Fraser, he visited successively the Okinagan, Kamloops, Shuswap and Takulli or Carriers, before arriving at their destination at Ft. St. James on Stuart lake. Return was made in the following spring, and on descending the Fraser he found that the Shuswap had already erected a chapel.
In the meantime De Smet and the Jesuits had arrived in the Columbia region, and between 1841 and 1844 had established a chain of missions throughout the territory, including three in British Columbia , among the Kutenai, Shuswap, and Okinagan. De Smet himself extended his visitations to the headwaters of the Athabaska. while in 1845-47 Father John Nobili, labouring among the upper tribes, penetrated to the Babines on the lake of that name. The most remote point visited was among the Carriers, at Stuart lake. In 1843 the first Hudson 's Bay post had been established on Vancouver id. at Camosun, now Victoria, and the beginning of missionary work among the Songish and the Cowichan was made by the secular priest, Father John Bolduc, already well known among the Sound tribes, who had for this reason been brought over by the officers in charge to assist in winning the good will of their Indian neighbours.
Owing to difficulty of communication and pressing need in other fields, it was found necessary to abandon the British Columbia missions, except for an occasional visiting priest, until the work was regularly taken up by the Oblates about 1860. Before 1865 they had regular establishments at New Westminster , St,. Marys, and Okinagan, besides others on Vancouver id., and in that year founded St. Joseph mission near Williams lake, on the upper Fraser, under Rev. J. M. McGuckin, first missionary to the Tsilkotin tribe. Within the next few years he extended his ministrations to the remoter Sekani and Skeena . In 1873 the Stuart Lake mission was established by Fathers Lejacq and Blanchet, and in 1885 was placed in charge of Father A. G. Morice, Oblate, the distinguished ethnologist and author, who had already mastered the Tsilkotin language in three years' labour in the tribe. Aside from his missionary labour proper, which still continues, he is perhaps best known as the inventor of the Déné syllabary, by means of which nearly all the Canadian Indians of the great Athapascan stock are now able to read and write in their own language. His other works include a Tsilkotin dictionary, a Carrier grammar, numerous religious and miscellaneous translations, an Indian journal, scientific papers, Notes on the Western Dénés (1893) and a History of the Northern Interior of British Columbia (1904). Father J. M. Le Jeune, of the same order, stationed among the Thompson River and Shuswap Indians since 1880, is also noted as the inventor of a successful shorthand system, by means of which those and other cognate tribes are now able to read in their own languages. He is also the author of a number of religious and text books in the same languages and editor of a weekly Indian journal, the Kamloops Wawa , all of which are printed on a copying press in his own stenographic characters. Another distinguished veteran of the same order is Bishop Paul Durieu, since 1854 until his recent death, labouring successively among the tribes of Washington , Vancouver id. ( Ft. Rupert , in Kwakiutl territory), and Fraser r.
Episcopal work began in 1857 with the remarkable and successful missionary enterprise undertaken by Mr. William Duncan among the Taimshian at Metlakatla, first in British Columbia and later in Alaska . The Taimshian at that time were among the fiercest and most degraded savages of the N. W. coast, slavery, human sacrifice, and cannibalism being features of their tribal system, to which they were rapidly adding all the vices introduced by the most depraved white men from the coasting vessels. Moved by reports of their miserable condition, Mr. Duncan voluntarily resigned a remunerative position in England to offer himself as a worker in their behalf under the auspices of the London Church Missionary Society. He arrived at Port. Simpson, N. coast of British Columbia , in Oct. 1857, and after some months spent in learning the language and making acquaintance with the tribe, then numbering 2,300, opened his first school in June, 1858. By courage and devotion through danger and difficulty he built up a civilized Christian body, which in 1860 he colonized to the number of about 340 in a regular town established at Metlakatla, an abandoned village site 16 m. S. of Fort Simpson. By systematic improvement of every industrial opportunity for years the town had grown to a prosperous, self-supporting community of 1,000 persons; when, by reason of difficulties with the local bishop upheld by the colonial government, Mr. Duncan and his Indians were compelled, in 1887, to abandon their town and improvements and seek asylum under United States protection in Alaska, where they formed a now settlement, known as New Metlakatla, on Annette id., 60 m. N. of their former home. The island, which is about 40 m. long by 3 m. wide, has been reserved by Congress for their use, and the work of improvement and education is now progressing as before the removal, the present population being about 500.
The first Episcopal bishop for British Columbia and Vancouver id. was appointed in 1859. In 1881 the Rev. John B. Good, sent out also by the London Society, arrived at Esquimalt, near Victoria , Vancouver id., to preach alike to whites and Indians. At a later period his work was transferred to the Indians of Thompson and lower Fraser rs., with headquarters at St. Paul mission, Lytton. He has translated a large part of the liturgy into the Thompson River (Ntlakyapamuk) language, besides being the author of a grammatic sketch and other papers. In 1885 Kincolith mission was established among the Niska branch of the Tsimshian, on Nass r., by Rev. R. A. Doolan, and some years later another one higher upon the same stream. Kitwingach station, on Skeena , r., was established about the same time. In 1871 Rev. Charles M. Tate took-up his residence with the Nanaimo on Vancouver id., labouring afterward with the Tsimshian, Bellabella, and Fraser River tribes. In 1876 Rev. W. H. Collison began work among the Haida at Masset, on the N. end of the Queen Charlotte ids., and in 1878 Rev. A. J. Hall arrived among the Kwakiutl at Fort Rupert , Vancouver id. Other stations in the meantime had been established through out the a. portion of the province, chiefly under the auspices of the London Church Missionary Society.
The first Methodist (Wesleyan) work for the Indians of British Columbia was begun in 1863 at Nanaimo, Vancouver id., by Rev. Thomas Crosby, who at once applied himself to the study of the language with such success that he was soon able to preach in it. In 1874 he transferred his labour to the Tsimshian at Port Simpson, on the border of Alaska , who had already been predisposed to Christianity by the work at Metlakatla and by visiting Indians from the S. Other stations were established on Nam r. (1877) and at Kitimat in the Bellabella tribe. Statistics show that the Methodist work has been particularly successful along the N. W. coast and in portions of Vancouver id.
There is no record of Presbyterian mission work, but some 415 Indians are officially credited to that denomination along the w. coast of Vancouver id.
According to the Report of Indian Affairs for 1911 the Christian Indians of British Columbia are classified as follows: Catholic, 11,609; Episcopal (Anglican), 4,245; Methodist, 3,529; Presbyterian, 418; all other, 226.
CANADA, NORTHWEST (N. Alberta" N. Saskatchewan, Mackenzie, Yukon, North Keewatin, Franklin ).
The earliest missionaries of the great Canadian Northwest, of which Mackenzie r. is the central artery, were the Catholic priests of the Oblate order. The pioneer may have been a Father Grollier, mentioned as the "first martyr of apostleship" in the Mackenzie district and buried at Ft. Good Hope, almost under the Arctic circle . In 1846 Father Alexandre Taché , afterward the distinguished archbishop of Red River, arrived at Lac Ile-à-la-Crosse a Cree station, on the upper waters of Churchill r., in N. Saskatchewan, and, a few months later, crossed over the divide to the Chipewyan tribe on the Athabaska river. Here he established St. Raphael mission, and, for the next 7 years, with the exception of a visit to Europe, divided his time between the two tribes. In 1847 or 1848 Father Henry Faraud, afterward vicar of the Mackenzie district , arrived among the Chipewyan of Great Slave lake, with whom and their congeners he continued for 18 years. To him we owe a Bible abridgment in the Chipewyan language. In 1852 arrived Father Valentin Végreville, for more than 40 years missionary to Cree, Assiniboin, and Chipewyan, all of which languages he spoke fluently; founder of the Chipewyan mission of St. Peter on Caribou lake, Athabaska, besides several others farther S.; and author of a manuscript grammar and dictionary of the Cree language, another of the Chipewyan language, and other ethnologic and religious papers in manuscript. In 1867 Father Laurent Legoff arrived at Caribou Lake mission, where he was still stationed in 1892. He is best known as the author of a grammar of the Montagnais, or Chipewyan language, published in 1889.
By far the most noted of all the Oblate missionaries of the great Northwest is Father Emile Petitot, acknowledged by competent Canadian authority as "our greatest scientific writer on the Indians and [Inuit]s" (MacLean). In 20 years of labour, beginning in 1862, he covered the whole territory from Winnipeg to the Arctic ocean , frequently making journeys of six weeks' length on snowshoes. He was the first missionary to visit Great Bear lake (1866), and the first missionary to the [Inuit] of the N.W., having visited them in 1865 at the mouth of the Anderson , in 1868 at the mouth of the Mackenzie, and twice later at the mouth of Peel r. In 1870 he crossed over into Alaska , and in 1878, compelled by illness, he returned to the S., making the journey of some 1,200 m. to Athabaska lake on foot, and thence by canoe and portages to Winnipeg . Besides writing some papers relating to the Cree, he is the author of numerous ethnological and philosophical works, dealing with the Chipewyan, Slave, Hare, Dog-rib, Kutchin, and [Inuit] tribes and territory, chief among which are his Déné-Dindjié dictionary (1876) and his Traditions Indiennes (1886).
Throughout the Mackenzie region the Catholics have now established regular missions or visiting stations at every principal gathering point, among the most important being a mission at Fort Providence , below Great Slave lake , and a school, orphanage, and hospital conducted since 1875 by the Sisters of Charity at Chipewyan on Athabaska lake.
Episcopal effort in the Canadian Northwest dates from 1858, in which year Archdeacon James Hunter, already mentioned in connection with the Cree mission, made a reconnoitering visit to Mackenzie r., as a result of which Rev. W. W. Kirkby, then on pariah duty on Red r., was next. year appointed to that field and at once took up his headquarters at the remote post of Ft. Simpson, at the junction of Liard and Mackenzie rs., 62° N. where, with the assistance of the Hudson's Bay Co's officers, he built a church and school. In 1862, after several years' study of the language, he descended the Mackenzie nearly to its mouth and crossed over the divide to the Yukon, just within the limits of Alaska, preaching to the Kutchin and making some study of the language, after which he returned to Ft. Simpson. In 1869 he was appointed to the station at York Factory, on Hudson bay, where he remained until his retirement in 1878, after 26 years of efficient service in Manitoba and the Northwest. He is the author of a number of religious translations in the Chipewyan and Slave languages.
The work begun on the Yukon by Kirkby was given over to Rev. (Archdeacon) Robert McDonald, who established his headquarters at St. Matthew mission on Peel r., Mackenzie district, "one mile within the Arctic circle ." Here he devoted himself with remarkable industry and success to a study of the language of the Takudh Kutchin, into which he has translated, besides several minor works, the Book of Common Prayer (1885), a small Collection of hymns (1889), and the complete Bible in 1898, all according to a syllabic system of his own device, by means of which the Indians were enabled to read in a few weeks. In 1865 Rev. Wm. C. Bompas, afterward bishop of Athabaska and, later, of Mackenzie River, arrived from England . In the next 25 years he laboured among the Chipewyan, Dog-ribs, Beavers, Slave, and Takudh tribes of the remote Northwest, and gave some attention also to the distant [Inuit]. He is the author of a primer in each of these languages, as well as in Cree and [Inuit], together with a number of gospel and other religious translations. Another notable name is that of Rev. Alfred Garrioch, who began work in the Beaver tribe on Peace r., Alberta , in 1876, after a year's preliminary study at Ft. Simpson. He is the founder of Unjiga mission at Fort Vermilion , and author of several devotional works and of a considerable vocabulary in the Beaver language. To a somewhat later period belong Rev. W. D. Reeve and Rev. Spendlove, in the Great Slave Lake region. Among the principal stations are Chipewyan on Athabaska lake, Ft. Simpson on the middle Mackenzie, and Fts. Macpherson and Lapierre in the neighbourhood of the Mackenzie's mouth. Work has also been done among the [Inuit] of Hudson bay, chiefly by Rev. Edmund Peck, who has devised a syllabary for the language, in which he has published several devotional translations, beginning in 1878. The greater portion of the Episcopal work in the Canadian Northwest has been under the auspices of the Church Missionary Society of London.
In the four centuries of American history there is no more inspiring chapter of heroism, self-sacrifice and devotion to high ideals than that afforded by the Indian missions. Some of the missionaries were of noble blood and had renounced titles and estates to engage in the work; most of them were of finished scholarship and refined habit, had nearly all were of such exceptional ability as to have commanded attention in any community and to have possessed themselves of wealth and reputation, had they so chosen; yet they deliberately faced poverty and sufferings, exile, and oblivion, ingratitude, torture, and death itself in the hope that some portion of a darkened world might be made better through their effort. [.], from Florida to Alaska , it is beyond question that, in spite of sectarian limitations and the shortcomings of individuals, the missionaries have fought a good fight. Where they have failed to accomplish large results the reason lies in the irrepressible selfishness of the white man or in the innate incompetence and unworthiness of the people for whom they laboured.
Source: James WHITE, ed., Handbook of Indians of Canada, Published as an Appendix to the Tenth Report of the Geographic Board of Canada, Ottawa, 1913, 632p., pp. 291-303.
© 2004 Claude Bélanger, Marianopolis College