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Last revised:
February 2006

Bibliographies in Canadian and Quebec History


How to find scholarly sources:


At the outset, read carefully the file on How to recognize a scholarly source.

Do a thorough search in the various databases, and the electronic catalogue, of our library, using different querries. In order to search efficiently in the databases and in the catalogue, you should know something of your subject. The more you will know about it, the more ways you can approach your search. For this purpose, do some preliminary research and brainstorm; identify the various elements, and people, involved in your subject/research question.

Repeat your search accessing the web catalogue of important libraries, such as McGill and Concordia universities, and the Bibliothèque nationale du Québec.

As well, do a thorough search on the internet, using Google. Do a careful search on the Quebec History site, using the search feature.

For further information on how to find material related to your subject, consult carefully the page on bibliographical work found elsewhere at the site. Follow especially the advice given on how to find scholarly journal articles. Keep in mind that electronic databases rarely give you access to material published before 1990; yet, there was a wealth of excellent material published before that date. Also, the databases are not as strong on Canada/Quebec subjects as they are on more international ones. This is why more traditional bibliographical methods should be followed as well to do your bibliography.

You should also consult the bibliographical section of the site as there might be material listed there that will be useful to you.


Requirements for the bibliography:


In your bibliography, you must demonstrate that you can apply the methodology taught to you in class, as well as list excellent sources to do your research with (each count 50% of the evaluation). After each bibliographical entry, explain precisely how this source was found, what tools were used to find the source, or what querry you entered into the search feature.

You have to find six (6) scholarly sources (at least three of which are from scholarly journals); two (2) primary sources; two (2) scholarly websites (or significant webpages from different sites); two (2) popular sources.

Rules to follow:


1. Do not number your sources;

2. Arrange the sources alphabetically, by author, and by category of sources (Primary sources, journals, web sites, etc.);

3. List first the sources that do not have a given author;

4. Capitalize the name of the author;

5. Italicize the title of books and the name of the journals;

6. Skip a line between each source;

7. When presenting your paper, place your bibliography at the end of the paper, always on a seperate page;

8. Only put in your bibliography works that you have used or consulted. You will be held responsible for the information contained in the sources listed in your bibliography.

9. When submitting your bibliography as a seperate piece of work, always make a title page. The title given to the bibliography should be specific to your subject. Follow the sample title page for your submission.


How to make a bibliographical entry


Historians are more traditionalist than the practitionners of the other social sciences. They still use footnotes (or endnotes) instead of parentetical notes for exemple. There are three main styles of references: the Chicago style of references, the APA style or the MLA style.

When constructing your bibliography, apply the following:

For a book:

BRUNET, Michel, Les Canadiens après la Conquête, 1759-1775. De la Révolution canadienne à la Révolution américaine, Montréal, Fides, 1969, 315p. (This entry provides the name of the author, the full title of the book, the place of publication, the publisher, the date of publication and the number of pages. If you propose to only use a section of the book, provide these pages at the end of the bibliographical entry)

For a Journal article:

WHITAKER, Reginald, "Origins of the Canadian Government's Internal Security System, 1946-1952", Canadian Historical Review, Vol. LXV, No 2 (June 1984): 154-183.

For an article inside of a book:

ARÈS, Richard, "Lionel Groulx et les Semaines sociales du Père Archambault", in Maurice FILION, ed., Hommage à Lionel Groulx, Montréal, Leméac, 1978, pp. 35-54.

For a web page (or website):

BÉLANGER, Damien-Claude, "The Cooperative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) and the New Democratic Party (NDP): their failure in Quebec, 1932-1997", 1999, (accessed on February 2, 2006)


If you have been asked to write an annotated bibliography, follow the method outlined in the text entitled Writing an Annotated Bibliography by Deborah Knott.

© 2006 Claude Bélanger, Marianopolis College